Concepts as mental representations The first of these views maintains that concepts are psychological entities, taking as its starting point the representational theory of the mind RTM. According to RTM, thinking occurs in an internal system of representation.
Learning Principles Theory and Research-based Principles of Learning The following list presents the basic principles that underlie effective learning. These principles are distilled from research from a variety of disciplines. Students come into our courses with knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes gained in other courses and through daily life.
As students bring this knowledge to bear in our classrooms, it influences how they filter and interpret what they are learning. However, when knowledge is inert, insufficient for the task, activated inappropriately, or inaccurate, it can interfere with or impede new learning.
How students organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know. Students naturally Autonomy a concept analysis connections between pieces of knowledge.
When those connections form knowledge structures that are accurately and meaningfully organized, students are better able to retrieve and apply their knowledge effectively and efficiently. In contrast, when knowledge is connected in inaccurate or random ways, students can fail to retrieve or apply it appropriately.
As students enter college and gain greater autonomy over what, when, and how they study and learn, motivation plays a critical role in guiding the direction, intensity, persistence, and quality of the learning behaviors in which they engage.
When students find positive value in a learning goal or activity, expect to successfully achieve a desired learning outcome, and perceive support from their environment, they are likely to be strongly motivated to learn. To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.
Students must develop not only the component skills and knowledge necessary to perform complex tasks, they must also practice combining and integrating them to develop greater fluency and automaticity.
Finally, students must learn when and how to apply the skills and knowledge they learn. As instructors, it is important that we develop conscious awareness of these elements of mastery so as to help our students learn more effectively.
Learning and performance are best fostered when students engage in practice that focuses on a specific goal or criterion, targets an appropriate level of challenge, and is of sufficient quantity and frequency to meet the performance criteria.
Students are not only intellectual but also social and emotional beings, and they are still developing the full range of intellectual, social, and emotional skills. While we cannot control the developmental process, we can shape the intellectual, social, emotional, and physical aspects of classroom climate in developmentally appropriate ways.
In fact, many studies have shown that the climate we create has implications for our students. To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning. Learners may engage in a variety of metacognitive processes to monitor and control their learning—assessing the task at hand, evaluating their own strengths and weaknesses, planning their approach, applying and monitoring various strategies, and reflecting on the degree to which their current approach is working.
Unfortunately, students tend not to engage in these processes naturally. When students develop the skills to engage these processes, they gain intellectual habits that not only improve their performance but also their effectiveness as learners. Skill acquisition and the LISP tutor.
Self-regulation of motivation and action through internal standards and goal systems. On the self-regulation of behavior. American Journal of Physics, 50, A study of knowledge-based learning. Cognitive Science, 6, Beliefs that make smart people dumb.
Goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs. The long-term retention of training and instruction pp. Interest, a motivational variable that combines affective and cognitive functioning.
Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development pp. Analogical thinking and human intelligence.
Student Success in College:Professional nurse autonomy: concept analysis and application to nursing education Professional nurse autonomy, an essential attribute of a discipline striving for full professional status, is.
Abstract Aim. This paper is a report of an analysis of the concept of patient autonomy. Background. Many problems regarding patient autonomy in healthcare contexts derive from the patient's dependent condition as well as the traditional authoritarian position of healthcare professionals.
The concept of patient autonomy is a highly variable subject in all fields of healthcare. Patient autonomy has been analyzed in many different ways in the literature. Professional nurse autonomy: concept analysis and application to nursing education.
Journal of Advance Nursing, 30(2), Kathryn A.,(). Aconcept analysis of Autonomy: Journal of Professional Nursing, Vol 14, No 2:pp Keenan, J.
() A concept analysis of autonomy.5/5(12). A Concept Analysis of Autonomy KATHRYN A. BALLOU, MSN, RNC, CNA* The nursing profession places a high value on the acquisition of autonomy as a requisite for profes- sional status.
Toleration. The heart of tolerance is self-control. When we tolerate an activity, we resist our urge to forcefully prohibit the expression of activities that we find unpleasant.